Thursday, January 29, 2015

Biology Drots activity due th/fr 2/5-6/15

“ Drots ” Pedigree &Analysis Questions

for pegidree:  use diamond shapes to represent each individual in each of the 3 generations: you and your drot partner; your 2 drot children and partner of one of those children and your 2 grand drotsDraw four lines across each diamond , breaking each drot into five lines, each of which you will shade to show the dominant or recessive nature of the 5 Drot traits. include a key as to whether you are shading for dominant or reccessive traits.

1) Draw a pedigree of your Drot and neighbors Drot linage. Show you, neighbor two drotlings, drotling partner and 2 grand drots. Use diamond shapes and subdivide into six regions to shade for the presence of each of your genes. You pick whether you are shading for dominant or recessive trait expression.

2) What are all the possible genotypes for Drot tentacles?

3) What are all the possible phenotypes for Drot tentacles?

4) If you consider tentacles and body type , what are all the possible combinations for phenotypes and genotypes for this pair of gene traits?

5) Considering the three Drot genes on the first chromosome, how many possible phenotype and genotypes are there?

6) How do you know the answer for #5?

7) What other factors could possibly affect the expression of any of these Drot genes??

Biology Traits lab Due Feb. 2nd, 2015

Traits Lab (graphing skills, analysis and predictions)

Task:  This is a partial lab write up you will need to include the following for your final draft:
1.  Question:  Are dominant or recessive expressions of genetic traits most common in this class?
2.  Hypothesis:  Insert your educated answer to the question here
3.  Data Table:  must be ruled and include any observations that may affect data collection
4.  With observation journal
5.  Analysis:  Using the good graphing rules create a bar graph that compares the # of students that have the dominant or recessive expression of each trait you test.  Questions 1) How would testing the entire 10th grade population affect your answer to the question?  2) Which traits were most commonly affected by environmental factors obscuring the genetic phenotype?
6.  Conclusion:  write your conclusion paragraph.  Restate the hypothesis, use evidence to support your comments, address sources of error and include a next step (social context is not required).

Space Between Top Teeth
No Space
Chin Shape
No Cleft
Rolling Tongue in a “U” Shape
Can Roll
Can’t Roll
Tongue Flipping
Can’t Flip
Eye Color
Hand Usage
Hair Color
Not Red
Hair Type
Hair Shade
Freckle Amount
No Freckles
Having Dimples
No Dimples
Hair Line
Widow’s Peak
No Widow’s Peak
Hitchhiker Thumbs
Curved Thumbs
Straight Thumbs
Little Finger “Pinky” Shape
Bent Pinky
Straight Pinky
Fold both hands
Right thumb on top
Left thumb on top
Mid digit hair (knuckles)
Not present

Earth science HW ch 11.1 Jan. 29-30/2015

Read and take notes on Ch 11.1 about Atmosphere basics for the Earth.  pg. 271 - 277.

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Earth science HW 1/20-21/2015

*Work on research for EarthMoon project

*Read and take notes for Ch 28.1 + 2, pg. 747 - 757

Biology HW 1/20-21/2015

Read and notes for Ch 11.3, pg. 311 - 316

Biology - Constructing a Pedigree

Constructing a Human Pedigree
Pre-Lab Discussion
Human traits are often difficult to study for several reasons. Unlike some organisms, which produce large numbers of offspring very quickly, humans reproduce slowly and produce few offspring at one time. Thus human traits must be studied through population sampling and pedigree analysis. A pedigree is a diagram that shows the phenotype of a particular genetic trait in a family from one generation to the next. Genotypes for individuals in a pedigree often can be determined with an understanding of inheritance and probability.
In this investigation, you will use both population sampling and pedigree analysis to observe human traits.

How can pedigree analysis help in the study of human traits?

Materials (per student)
No special materials are needed.

Part A. Interpreting a Pedigree Chart
1. Figure 1 is a pedigree, or a diagram of a family's pattern of inheritance for a specific trait.
2. Notice that in a pedigree, each person is represented by an Arabic number and each generation is represented by a Roman numeral. In this way, each person can be identified by a generation numeral and an individual number. Males are represented by squares and females by circles. Unshaded symbols (squares or circles) indicate people who are homozygous or heterozygous for the dominant trait. Shaded symbols indicate people who are homozygous for the recessive trait.
3. In Figure 1, 1-1 and I-2 are the parents. The horizontal line that connects them is called a marriage line. The vertical line that extends down from the marriage line connects the children to the parents. Children are listed in order of their births from left to right. In other words, the oldest child is always placed on the extreme left. In this pedigree, persons II-1, II-2, 11-3, 114, and II-5 are the children of persons 1-1 and I-2.
4. The trait being analyzed in Figure 1 is ear-lobe shape. There are two general ear-lobe shapes, free lobes and attached lobes. See Figure 2. The gene responsible for free ear lobes, represented by the capital letter E, is dominant over the gene for attached ear lobes, represented by the lowercase letter e. People with attached ear lobes are homozygous for the recessive trait and are represented as ee. In Figure 1, 1-1 and II-5 are homozygous recessive (ee) and have attached ear lobes. The people represented by the unshaded symbols have two possible genotypes: EE or Ee.
5. Use Figure 1 to complete questions 1 through 8 in Observations.

Part B. Constructing a Family Pedigree
1. In the space provided in Observations, draw the outline of a pedigree of your family or a family who lives near you. In the pedigree, include any grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nieces, or nephews that live nearby. Number the generations and individuals.
2. The ability of a person to roll his or her tongue is the result of the dominant allele R. People who cannot roll their tongues have the genotype rr. People who can roll their tongues have the genotype RR or Rr. If you are developing a pedigree for your own family, determine if you can roll your tongue. See Figure 3.
3. If you cannot roll your tongue, enter the genotype rr in the space below your symbol on the pedigree.
4. If you can roll your tongue, enter the genotype R _ for the presence of the dominant gene in the space below your symbol on the pedigree.
5. If you are constructing a pedigree for your own family, survey additional members of your family for their ability to roll their tongue. If you are constructing a pedigree for another family, survey as many members of that family as possible.
6. Record the results of family members you tested in your pedigree.

1. What is the genotype of 1-2? Explain your answer.
2. What are the genotypes of 11-1, 11-2,11-3, and II-4? Explain your answer.
3. What are the possible genotypes for II-6? Explain your answer.
4. If II-6 is EE, what is the genotype of her child with II-5?
5. What sex is the oldest child in generation II?
6. Who is the youngest child in generation II?
7. Who is the daughter-in-law in this family?
8. How many generations are represented in this pedigree?
Use this space to construct the pedigree for the family you have chosen to study. Correctly number each generation and person. Shade in the symbols for those people who are homozygous recessive. Below the symbol for each person, write as much of the person's genotype as possible.

Analysis and Conclusions
1. Would you expect the other students in your class to have tongue-rolling pedigrees that are identical to yours? Explain your answer.
2. Explain why you are not always able to determine the exact genotype for a trait of a person when you construct a pedigree.
3. If two parents are unable to roll their tongues, is it likely that they will have children who will be able to roll their tongues? Explain your answer.

Critical Thinking and Application
1. Can the actual traits of an offspring be determined by knowing the traits of the parents? Explain your answer.
2. A woman received the genes aBcD from her mother and AbCd from her father. Which of the following gene combinations could be present in her gametes: ABCD, abcd, ABCDD, aBccD, ABcd, AaBb? Explain your answer.
3. If a man who has long eyelashes (LL) marries a woman who has long eyelashes (LI), what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their children?